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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

CHAPTER XVII THE GLACIERS OF PASSAGE CANAL AND BLACKSTONE BAY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Passage Canal is a fiord, extending in a general east and west direction in the northwestern part of Prince William Sound. Portage Bay, Blackstone Bay, Cochrane Bay, Port Wells, and Culross Passage are the principal indentations leading out of it. It is about 25 miles long, and from 1 to 2£ miles wide. Esther and Culross Islands flank the mouth of Passage Canal and on the western side of Culross Island is Culross Passage, a narrow, crooked channel, 11 miles long, connecting Passage Canal with Port Nellie Juan to the south. These fiords have steeply-rising walls, a great many snow-fields near by, and moderate-sized glaciers, some of which extend down to sea level.
PREVIOUS OBSERVATIONS
The exploration of these fiords was accomplished by several of the same men who did the early work in the other parts of Prince William Sound, with the exception of the Harriman Expedition which did not visit them. Maps of one kind or another and brief descriptions have been published by Vancouver and Whidbey,1 Petroff,8 Apple-gate,8 Glenn,4 Learnard, Castner and Kelly, Mendenhall,6 Herron,8 Porter,7 and Grant and Higgins.8 Of these observers only Grant and Higgins have given especial attention to glacier study.
The junior author, in charge of the National Geographic Society's expedition of
1910, devoted four days (August 2 to 5) to a study of the glaciers of inner Passage Canal and Blackstone Bay.9   During this time we made the map of Tebenkof Glacier, the
i Vancouver, George, Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, Vol. V, 1801, pp. 249-250. 288, 306-311. Map reproduced by Davidson (see below) Map V.
i Petroff, Ivan, Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. VET, 1884, p. 27 and Map VI, facing p. 75.
' Applegate, S., map in Davidson's Glaciers of Alaska that are Shown on Russian Charts or Mentioned in Older Narratives, Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc., Pacific, Vol. 3, 1904, p. 27 and Map XI.
«Glenn, E. F., War Dept., Adj.-Gen. Office, No. XXV, 1899, pp. 17-18, 26-32; Learnard, H. G., Ibid., pp. 125, 127-8; Castner, J. C., Ibid., pp. 189-192; Kelly, L. S., Ibid., p. 289, also map in pocket
• Mendenhall, W. C., 20th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part VIE, 1900, pp. 273-*, SOI, 325-828, and Mapl6.
• Herron, J. S., War Dept., Adj.-Gen. Office, No. XXXI, 1901, p. 13 and map.
i Porter, E. W., Report on Population and Resources of Alaska, Eleventh Census, 1890, Washington, 1893, p. 70.
• Grant, U. S. and Higgins, D. F., Glaciers of the West Coast of Prince William Sound, Bull Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. ^T-TTT, 1911, pp. 402Hi07; in Reid's Variations of Glaciers, Journ. Geol., Vol. XVJI, 1909, p. 671; also mapg in Bull. 284, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, Fig. 4, p. 79; Ibid., Bull. 879,1909, PL IV, facing p. 88; Ibid., Bull. 443, 1910, PI. I, facing p. 10 and PI. £1, in pocket.
i Martin, Lawrence, The National Geographic Society Researches in Alaska, Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XXII,
1911, p. 559; Journ. Geol., Vol. XTX 1911, p. 458.
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